Notes for authors

General points

  • Please consult the current version of a well-respected dictionary (e.g. "OED" for British English or "Merriam-Webster" for American English) for correct spelling.
  • It is the author’s responsibility to verify the accuracy of quoted material.

Footnotes and Bibliography

  • Please use footnotes sparingly.
    • Example: "Michael W. Apple, Official Knowledge: Democratic Education in a Conservative Age, 3rd ed., 2013, New York: Routledge, page number (if applicable, not preceded by p.)."
  • The footnote number should follow all punctuation (full-stop, comma, colon, semi colon etc.) unless specifically referring to a particular word or term. The exception to this rule is the dash.
  • Bibliographic references in parentheses should state the name, publication date, and page number if applicable.
  • Bibliographic references in footnotes employ a short-title system: Author surname, logical short title, page.
    • Example: "Apple, Official Knowledge, 45."
  • The order and punctuation for bibliographic references should be as follows: "$surname, $forename. $title. $subtitle [if applicable], $edition [if applicable], $location: $publisher, $year_of_publication, $page_number [if applicable, not preceded by 'p.']."
  • For examples of other kinds of literature, please see the section on citations.

Exception: Citation of textbooks

  • Citations arranged according to author names are not generally helpful in the case of textbooks.
  • Textbooks and similar material should be cited primarily according to title.
  • Author names may follow the title, if applicable.
  • It is important to state the age or class level for which the book is intended.
  • In the case of textbook series, which are continually reissued and for which different versions are released for different federal states, it must be explicit which issue is being referred to.
    • Example: "Das Zahlenbuch 1, Year 1, Edition SH, HH, NI, HB, NW, HE, RP, SL, BE, BB, MV, SN, ST, TH. Melanie Bischoff, Daniela Götze and Birgit Heß, Gerhard N. Müller, Marcus Nührenbörger, Ralph Schwarzkopf and Erich Ch. Wittmann, Stuttgart: Klett, 2017."

Citation formats

Citations in footnotes (examples)


First reference

"Roy G. Wagner, The Invention of Culture, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981, 46."

Subsequent citations in footnotes

"Wagner, Invention of Culture, 112."

Note: In the case of more than one consecutive reference to the same source, subsequent footnotes should read: ibid, with a page number given if different from the previous entry.

Two authors

"Alexia Bloch and Laurel Kendall. The Museum at the End of the World: Encounters in the Russian Far East, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004, 120."

Chapter/essay in a book

"Arjun Appadurai, ‘Global Ethnoscapes: Notes and Queries from a Transnational Anthropology’, in: Richard Fox (ed.), Recapturing Anthropology, Santa Fe: SAR Press, 1991, 191–210."

Journal article

"André Gingrich, ‘Neo-Nationalism and the Reconfiguration of Europe’, in: Social Anthropology 14, 2 (2006), 195–217."


"Theodor W. Adorno and Walter Benjamin, The Complete Correspondence 1928-1940. translated by Nicholas Walker, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999, 78."

Newspaper article

"Eric C. Fontanelle und Valerie Mandible, ‘Iron Despair: Postwar Bewilderment’. In: World Spectator, 6. April 1951, 12-13, 12."

Conference paper

"Peter Schweitzer, Rediscovering a Continent: Siberian Peoples and the Hunter-Gatherer Debate, presented at the seventh conference of the International Hunting and Collecting Societies, 2 August 1993."

Online content

"Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach. Evanston Public Library, https ://, last accessed 30 May 2011."

Citation in Bibliography


"Apple, Michael W. Teachers and Texts: A Political Economy of Class and Gender Relations in Education, New York: Routledge, 1986."

Note: Subsequent works by the same author: "----. Ideology and Curriculum, New York: Routledge, 1990."

Modern editions of historic works

"Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia [1785/1787], William Peden (ed.), New York: W.W. Norton, 1954."

Chapters in edited volumes

"Mayer, Peter and Hermann Sautter. ‘Die Stellung der USA im Welthandel’, in: Länderbericht USA. Geschichte, politische Kultur, politisches System, Wirtschaft. Willi Paul Adams et al. (eds.), Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 1990, 653–656."

Journal article

"Chisholm, Linda. ‘Ideology, Legitimation of Status Quo and History Textbooks in South Africa’. In: Perspectives in Education 5, 2 (1981), 134–149."

Newspaper article

"Fontanelle, Eric C. and Valerie Mandible. ‘Iron Despair: Postwar Bewilderment’. In: World Spectator, 6 April 1951, 12."

Conference paper

"Kallaway, Peter. Education and Nation-Building in South Africa in the 1990s: Reforming History Education for the Post-Apartheid Era. Unpublished paper presented at the fourth international forum on education research at Swaziland University, 29 July–2 August 1991."

Online content

"Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach, Evanston Public Library, https ://, last access 30 Mai 2011."

Note: Where possible use persistent identifiers (DOI, URN, Handle, PURL) for online material. No date of last access is necessary in this case.

Persistent Identifier (PID)

"Klump, Jens and Robert Huber. ‘20 Years of Persistent Identifiers – Which Systems are Here to Stay?’, in: Data Science Journal 16 (2017), DOI: 10.5334/dsj-2017-009."


Listed below are several formatting recommendations. Papers should adhere to these formats when submitted.

  • Use Times New Roman font, size 12 point, line spacing 1.5.
  • Text should be justified.
  • Leave at least 3 centimetres space in both left and right margins.
  • The first sentence of each paragraph following a heading should be indented 0.6 centimetres – with the exception of the document’s opening sentence.
  • Chapter headings should be bold. This applies to all headings and sub-headings.
  • Headings should not be numbered or lettered.
  • Please use single quotation marks for quotations (double quotation marks are used for quotations within quotations).
  • Quotations that extend to more than three lines should be set as an indented text element within the main body of text, without quotation marks. The text block should be indented by 0.5 cm from the left margins, separated by a single line (above and below) and be in font size 10 with single spaced lines.
  • Footnotes: Times New Roman font size 10, hanging indent of 0.5 cm.
  • Bullet points: Please ensure that subsequent lines of text begin in line with the preceding text and not in line with the bullet point. This can be achieved using the indent or ruler functions.
  • Bibliography: hanging indent, 0.5 centimetres.
  • Figures and tables should be numbered sequentially (‘Table 1’, ‘Table 2’, …).
  • Dates should be written out (‘26 January 1988’ not ‘26.1.1988’).
  • Numbers up to and including twelve should be written out in words (‘nine’ not ‘9’). Numbers above and including 13 should be given as digits.
  • All titles of works should be set in italics (please do not use small capitals).
  • A table of contents should be created automatically with the appropriate template.